Apolipoprotein b (apob) _ apob and risk for heart disease

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is an important component of many lipoproteins that are involved in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

Atherosclerosis may be described as a chronic inflammation in the arterial wall. Congenital heart disease review It is caused by a complex interplay between lipoproteins, white blood cells (macrophages), the immune system and the normal elements of the arterial wall.

This process leads to formations of atherosclerotic lesions or plaques that may protrude into the lumen of the artery causing arterial narrowing, which may ultimately limit blood flow.

If this occurs in the coronary arteries, it may cause angina pectoris and if it occurs in the arteries of the legs, it may cause claudication.

Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque may lead to thrombosis (blood clotting) causing an acute occlusion (blockage) of the artery. Heart disease meaning If this happens in a coronary artery it may cause an acute myocardial infarction (acute heart attack).

There are many factors that contribute to atherosclerosis, one of which is elevated blood levels of cholesterol.

Although cholesterol is an essential substance, elevated plasma levels appear to play an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Congenital heart disease down syndrome In animal models, atherosclerosis will not occur in the absence of greatly elevated levels of plasma cholesterol.

High levels of plasma cholesterol also appear to be an important contributor to atherosclerosis in humans, although the threshold level of plasma cholesterol that must be exceeded to produce clinically relevant disease appears to be much lower than that in animal models, possibly because lesion formation occurs over many decades.

Atherosclerotic clinical events, such as myocardial infarction are uncommon among individuals with lifelong very low plasma cholesterol levels.

Because fats are insoluble in water, cholesterol can not be transported in blood on its own.

The body’s solution to this problem is to bind cholesterol to certain proteins that function as transport vehicles carrying different types of fats such as cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids. Cure heart disease These combinations of fats and protein are termed lipoproteins.

It is important to emphasize, that it is lipoprotein that interact with the arterial wall and initiate the cascade of events that leads to atherosclerosis.

Cholesterol is only one of many components of lipoproteins. Ischemic heart disease prevention Therefore, measurements of total cholesterol provide little information about the lipoproteins that transport the bulk of cholesterol.

There is a strong and graded correlation between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the risk of CVD, both in women and men, although this has been debated by some investigators.

Measurements of the number of LDL-particles (LDL-P) appear more predictive of risk than measurements of the cholesterol mass within these particles or LDL-cholesterol ( LDL-C).

Although LDL’s seem to be the most atherogenic particles, it has to remembered that VLDL and other apoB – containing lipoproteins may also contribute to atherosclerosis. Coronary heart disease statistics Apolipoprotein B (apoB)

Lipoproteins are the particles that transport cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood stream.

Lipoproteins are comprised of proteins (apolipoproteins), phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol. Signs of heart disease The lipoproteins vary in the major lipoprotein present, and the relative contents of the different lipid components. Coronary heart disease and coronary artery disease ApoB is an important component of many of the most atherogenic lipoprotein particles.

ApoB occurs in 2 main forms, apoB 48 and apoB 100. Coronary heart disease pictures ApoB 48 is synthesized mainly by the small intestine. What is the meaning of heart disease ApoB 100 is the apolipoprotein found in lipoproteins synthesized by the liver. Heart disease facts Therefore, from the viewpoint of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk, apoB100 is the important one. Congenital heart disease icd 9 code ApoB 48 is primarily found in chylomicrons.

ApoB 100 is found in chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL and LP(a) particles. Coronary heart disease types All these particles are atherogenic. What does heart disease mean Each of these particles contains a single apoB molecule. Congenital heart disease genetic Therefore, measurements of apoB represent the total burden of the main lipoprotein particles involved in the atherosclerotic process.

Usually, 85-90 percent of apoB represent LDL particles. Congenital heart disease types Thus, apoB reflects particle concentration, similar to LDL-P. Conjunctive heart disease Although measurements of apoB are not widely available, the assay has been standardized and does not require a fasting sample.

Several studies have shown that apoB may be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease risk than LDL-C. 4 signs of heart disease Furthermore, it has been shown that apoB may be elevated despite normal or low concentrations of LDL-C. 5 cyanotic congenital heart disease ApoB also appears to predict on-treatment risk, when LDL-C has been lowered by statin therapy. Dog heart disease The INTERHEART study found that the apoB/apoA1 ratio is more effective at predicting heart attack risk, than either the apoB or apoA1 measure alone.

Apo B containing lipoproteins are the ones that are most likely to enter the wall of the arteries. Risk of heart disease They are capable of trafficking cholesterol into the artery wall, and if present in increased numbers they may be the main initiating factor in atherosclerosis. Hypertensive heart and chronic kidney disease Retention of ApoB containing lipoprotein particles within the arterial wall is an essential part of the process. Coronary heart disease treatment Normal Range For ApoB

Usually less than 100 mg/dL is considered desirable in low or intermediate risk individuals.

Less than 80 mg/dL is desirable in high risk individuals, such as those with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Heart with heart disease How to Lower ApoB

Many doctors will recommend the same general measures to lower apoB as they do for lowering LDL-C. Early symptoms of heart disease Thus, reducing the amount of saturated fats and cholesterol is often recommended together with increased consumption of vegetables, fiber and mono-and polyunsaturated (omega-3) fatty acids.

Some studies have indicated that carbohydrate restriction may lower apoB, independent of whether the intake of saturated fat is low or high. Rheumatic heart disease case study LDL-C was not lowered by carbohydrate restriction in these studies, suggesting that diet may affect apoB and LDL-C differently.

Physical exercise has also been shown to lower apoB and positively affect the apoB/apoA1 ratio, but the effect on LDL-C appears to be much smaller.

ApoB levels can be reduced by cholesterol lowering drugs (statins).

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