Carotid artery disease _ columbia neurosurgery

Carotid artery disease, also called carotid artery stenosis, occurs when the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed. Pulmonary heart disease The narrowing of the carotid arteries is most commonly related to atherosclerosis (a build-up of plaque, which is a deposit of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of an artery). Heart disease in america Atherosclerosis, or “hardening of the arteries,” is a vascular disease (disease of the arteries and veins).

What is congestive heart disease Carotid artery disease is similar to coronary artery disease, in which blockages occur in the arteries of the heart, and may cause a heart attack.

To better understand how carotid artery disease affects the brain, a basic review of the anatomy of the circulation system of the brain follows.

The main supply of blood to the brain is carried by the carotid arteries. Is cardiovascular disease the same as heart disease The carotid arteries branch off from the aorta (the largest artery in the body) a short distance from the heart, and extend upward through the neck carrying oxygen-rich blood to the brain.

There are four carotid arteries: the right and left internal carotid arteries and the right and left external carotid arteries. Signs of congenital heart disease One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck. Feline heart disease Just as a pulse can be felt in the wrists, a pulse can also be felt on either side of the neck over the carotid arteries. All about heart disease Why are the carotid arteries important?

Because the carotid arteries deliver blood to the brain, carotid artery disease can have serious implications by reducing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Heart disease deaths The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients in order to function. Wikipedia heart disease Even a brief interruption in blood supply can cause problems. Heart disease exercise Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without blood or oxygen. Coronary heart disease bitesize If the narrowing of the carotid arteries becomes severe enough to block blood flow, or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque breaks off and obstructs blood flow to the brain, a stroke may occur. Coronary heart disease facts What causes carotid artery disease?

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of carotid artery disease. Causes of heart disease It is unknown exactly how atherosclerosis begins or what causes it. Congenital heart disease guidelines Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive, vascular disease that may start as early as childhood. Severe heart disease However, the disease has the potential to progress rapidly. Ischemic heart disease ecg It is generally characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits along the innermost layer of the arteries. Chelation therapy for heart disease If the disease process progresses, plaque formation may take place. Ischemic heart disease wiki Plaque is made up of deposits of smooth muscle cells, fatty substances, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular waste products. What is the definition of heart disease This thickening narrows the arteries and can decrease blood flow or completely block the flow of blood to the brain. Hypertensive heart disease definition What are the risk factors for carotid artery disease?

Atherosclerosis is thought to play an important role in the development of carotid artery disease. Rheumatic heart disease pregnancy Risk factors associated with atherosclerosis include:

A risk factor is anything that may increase a person’s chance of developing a disease. Ischemic heart disease pdf It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Heart disease heart attack Different diseases have different risk factors.

Although these risk factors increase a person’s risk, they do not necessarily cause the disease. Stress heart disease Some people with one or more risk factors never develop the disease, while other people who develop disease have no known risk factors. Heart disease statistics Knowing your risk factors to any disease can help to guide you into the appropriate actions, including changing behaviors and being clinically monitored for the disease. Statistics of heart disease What are the symptoms of carotid artery disease?

Carotid artery disease may be asymptomatic (without symptoms) or symptomatic (with symptoms). Heart disease pictures Asymptomatic carotid disease is the presence of a significant amount of atherosclerotic build-up without obstructing enough blood flow to cause symptoms. Most common heart disease Symptomatic carotid artery disease may result in either a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or a stroke (brain attack).

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a sudden or a temporary loss of blood flow to an area of the brain, usually lasting less than five minutes but no longer than 24 hours, with complete recovery. Why is heart disease the leading cause of death Symptoms of a TIA may include, but are not limited to, the following:

• sudden weakness or clumsiness of an arm and/or leg on one side of the body

• sudden paralysis (inability to move) of an arm and/or leg on one side of the body

TIA may be related to severe narrowing or blockage or from small pieces of an atherosclerotic plaque breaking off, traveling through the bloodstream, and lodging in small blood vessels in the brain. Congenital heart disease pregnancy With TIA, there is rarely permanent brain damage.

Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA, as it may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. Heart disease warning signs Not all strokes, however, are preceded by TIAs.

Stroke is another indicator of carotid artery disease. Definition for heart disease The symptoms of a stroke are the same as for a TIA. Ischemic heart disease icd 10 A stroke is loss of blood flow (ischemia) to the brain that continues long enough to cause permanent brain damage. Heart disease in cats Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without blood or oxygen. Heart failure disease The area of dead cells in tissues is called an infarct.

The area of the brain that suffered the loss of blood flow will determine what the physical or mental disability may be. Type of heart disease This may include impaired ability with movement, speech, thinking and memory, bowel and bladder function, eating, emotional control, and other vital body functions. Symptoms of heartworm disease in dogs Recovery from the specific ability affected depends on the size and location of the stroke. Heart disease smoking A minor stroke may result in only minor problems such as weakness in an arm or leg. Rheumatic heart disease murmur More severe strokes may cause paralysis, loss of speech, or even death.

The symptoms of carotid artery disease may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Symtoms of heart disease Always consult your physician for a diagnosis. Heart disease usa How is carotid artery disease diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for carotid artery disease may include any, or a combination, of the following:

• auscultation (listening to) of carotid arteries – placement of a stethoscope over the carotid artery to listen for a particular sound called a bruit (pronounced brew-ee). Ischemic heart disease myocardial infarction A bruit is an abnormal sound that is produced by blood passing through a narrowed artery. What is heart disease wiki A bruit is generally considered a sign of an atherosclerotic artery; however, an artery may be diseased without producing this sound.

• carotid artery duplex scan – a type of vascular ultrasound study performed to assess the blood flow of the carotid arteries. Rheumatic heart disease jones criteria A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. Heart disease treatment and cures A transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. Effects of heart disease When the transducer (like a microphone) is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the blood vessels, where the waves echo off of the blood cells. Sign of heart disease The transducer picks up the reflected waves and sends them to an amplifier, which makes the ultrasonic sound waves audible. Coronary heart disease vs cardiovascular disease Absence or faintness of these sounds may indicate an obstruction to the blood flow.

• magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

• magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) – a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of magnetic resonance technology (MRI) and intravenous (IV) contrast dye to visualize blood vessels. Coronary heart disease and obesity Contrast dye causes blood vessels to appear opaque on the MRI image, allowing the physician to visualize the blood vessels being evaluated.

• computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) – a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. Heart cardiovascular disease A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. Rheumatic heart disease in adults CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

• angiography – an invasive procedure used to assess the degree of blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries by taking x-ray images while a contrast dye in injected. Congenital heart disease radiology assistant The contrast dye helps to visualize the shape and flow of blood through the arteries as x-ray images are made.

Specific treatment for carotid artery disease will be determined by your physician based on:

• your tolerance of specific medications, procedures, or therapies

Carotid artery disease (asymptomatic or symptomatic) in which the narrowing of the carotid artery is less than 50 percent is most often treated medically. Coronary heart disease and stress Asymptomatic disease with less than 70 percent narrowing may also be treated medically, depending on the individual situation.

Risk factors that may be modified include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, elevated blood glucose levels, lack of exercise, poor dietary habits, and elevated blood pressure.

Medications that may be used to treat carotid artery disease include:

• antiplatelet medications – medications used to decrease the ability of platelets in the blood to stick together and cause clots. Is heart disease the leading cause of death Aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix®), and dipyridamole (Persantine®) are examples of antiplatelet medications.

• anticoagulants – also described as “blood thinners,” these medications work differently than antiplatelet medications to decrease the ability of the blood to clot. Heart disease children An example of an anticoagulant is warfarin (Coumadin®).

• antihyperlipidemics – medications used to lower lipids (fats) in the blood, particularly cholesterol. Heart disease cardiovascular disease Statins are a group of antihyperlipidemic medications, and include simvastatin (Zocor®), atorvastatin (Lipitor®), and pravastatin (Pravachol®), among others. Heart disease and exercise Studies have shown that certain statins can decrease the thickness of the carotid artery wall and increase the size of the lumen (opening) of the artery.

• antihypertensives – medications used to lower blood pressure. Rheumatic heart disease wiki There are several different groups of medications which act in different ways to lower blood pressure.

In persons with narrowing of the carotid artery greater than 50 percent to 69 percent, a more aggressive treatment may be recommended, particularly in persons with symptoms. Deaths from heart disease Surgical treatment decreases the risk for stroke after symptoms such as TIA or minor stroke, especially in persons with an occlusion (blockage) of more than 70 percent who are good candidates for surgery.

Carotid endarterectomy is a procedure used to remove plaque and clots from the carotid arteries, located in the neck. Names for heart disease Endarterectomy may help prevent a stroke from occurring, particularly in persons with a carotid artery narrowing of 80 percent or more.

Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a minimally invasive procedure in which a very small hollow tube, or catheter, is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin to the carotid arteries. Heart disease diet Once the catheter is in place, a balloon may be inflated to open the artery and a stent is placed. Coronary heart disease involves A stent is a cylinder-like tube made of thin metal-mesh framework used to hold the artery open. Hypertensive heart disease pdf Because there is a risk of stroke from bits of plaque breaking off during the procedure, an apparatus, called an embolic protection device, may be used. Heart disease rates An embolic protection device is a filter (like a small basket) that is attached on a guidewire to catch any debris that may break off during the procedure. Rheumatic heart disease natural treatment While this procedure is performed widely, the long-term effects are still being studied.

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