How is nasopharyngeal cancer diagnosed_

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is most often diagnosed when a person goes to a doctor because of symptoms such as a lump in the neck. Bone marrow biopsy sedation The doctor will take a history, do an exam, and then may refer the patient to a specialist and/or order some tests. Bone marrow infection Medical history and physical exam

If you have any signs or symptoms that suggest you might have nasopharyngeal cancer, your doctor will want to get your complete medical history to learn about your symptoms and any possible risk factors, including your family history.

A physical exam will be done to look for signs of NPC or other health problems. Types of bone marrow During the exam, the doctor will pay special attention to the head and neck area, including the nose, mouth, and throat; the facial muscles, and the lymph nodes in the neck.

If your doctor suspects you may have a tumor or other problem in the nose or throat, he or she may order imaging tests (such as CT or MRI) to look at the head and neck area more closely. Cost of bone marrow transplant Your doctor may also refer you to an otolaryngologist (a doctor specializing in ear, nose, and throat problems, also sometimes called an ENT doctor), who will do a more thorough exam of the nasopharynx. Bone marrow makes blood The nasopharynx is a difficult area to examine. Register for bone marrow donation Most other kinds of doctors do not have the specialized training or equipment to do a thorough exam of this part of the body. What is a bone marrow Exams of the nasopharynx

The nasopharynx is located deep inside the head and is not easily seen, so special techniques are needed to examine this area. Tumor of the bone marrow medical term There are 2 main types of exams used to look inside the nasopharynx for abnormal growths, bleeding, or other signs of disease. Where to buy bone marrow Both types of exams are usually done in the doctor’s office.

• For indirect nasopharyngoscopy, the doctor uses special small mirrors and lights placed at the back of your throat to look at the nasopharynx and nearby areas.

• For direct nasopharyngoscopy, the doctor uses a fiber-optic scope known as a nasopharyngoscope (a flexible, lighted, narrow tube inserted through the nose) to look directly at the lining of the nasopharynx. Purpose of yellow bone marrow You will have numbing medicine sprayed into your nose before the exam to make it easier. What is a bone marrow donor This is the method most often used to carefully examine the nasopharynx.

If a tumor starts under the lining of the nasopharynx (in the tissue called the submucosa), it may not be possible to see it directly on physical exam, which is why imaging tests such as CT scans (see below) may be needed as well. Indication of bone marrow aspiration Biopsy

Symptoms and the results of exams can suggest that a person might have NPC, but the actual diagnosis is made by removing cells from an abnormal area and looking at them under a microscope. Risks of bone marrow donation This is known as a biopsy. Yellow bone marrow function Different types of biopsies may be done, depending on where the abnormal area is. What is the purpose of red bone marrow Endoscopic biopsy

If a suspicious growth is found in the nasopharynx during an exam, the doctor may remove a biopsy sample with small instruments and the aid of a fiber-optic scope. Bone marrow transplant registry Often, biopsies of the nasopharynx are done in the operating room as an outpatient procedure. Bone marrow transplant risks donor The sample is then sent to a lab, where a pathologist (a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and classifying diseases in the lab) looks at it under a microscope. Reasons for bone marrow transplant If the biopsy sample contains cancer cells, the pathologist sends back a report describing the type of the cancer.

NPC is not always visible during an exam. What makes bone marrow If a person has symptoms suggesting NPC but nothing abnormal is seen on exam, the doctor may biopsy normal-looking tissue, which may be found to contain cancer cells when looked at under the microscope. Anemia bone marrow Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy

An FNA biopsy may be used if you have a suspicious lump in or near your neck. How to be bone marrow donor For this procedure, the doctor uses a thin, hollow needle attached to a syringe to aspirate (withdraw) a few drops of fluid containing cells and tiny fragments of tissue. Bone marrow and red blood cells A local anesthetic (numbing medicine) may be used on the skin where the needle will be inserted might be numbed with a local anesthetic but sometimes this is not needed.

The doctor places the needle directly into the mass for about 10 seconds and withdraws cells and a few drops of fluid. No bone marrow The cells are then looked at under a microscope to see if they are cancerous.

An FNA biopsy can help determine if an enlarged lymph node in the neck area is caused by a response to an infection, the spread of cancer from somewhere else (such as the nasopharynx), or a cancer that begins in lymph nodes – called a lymphoma. What is produced in red bone marrow If the cancer started somewhere else, the FNA biopsy alone might not be able to tell where it started. Cure for bone marrow cancer But if a patient already known to have NPC has enlarged neck lymph nodes, FNA can help determine if the spread of NPC caused the lymph node swelling. Human bone marrow Imaging tests

Imaging tests use x-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, or radioactive particles to create pictures of the inside of your body. Bone marrow donation money Imaging tests may be done for a number of reasons, including to help find a suspicious area that might be cancerous, to learn how far cancer may have spread, and to help determine if treatment has been effective. Donating bone marrow process Chest x-ray

If you have been diagnosed with NPC, a plain x-ray of your chest may be done to see if the cancer has spread to your lungs. Cancer of bone marrow This is very unlikely unless your cancer is far advanced. Bone marrow means This x-ray can be done in any outpatient setting. What is cancer of the bone marrow If the results are normal, you probably don’t have cancer in your lungs. Bone marrow donation procedure video Computed tomography (CT) scan

The CT scan is an x-ray test that produces detailed cross-sectional images of your body. 2 types of bone marrow Instead of taking one x-ray, a CT scanner takes many pictures as it rotates around you. Donating bone marrow compensation A computer then combines them into images of slices of the part of your body that is being studied.

Before the pictures are taken, you may get an IV (intravenous) line through which a kind of contrast dye (IV contrast) is injected. Bone marrow transplant race This helps better outline structures in your body. Bone marrow in human body You may also be asked to drink 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast. Procedure of bone marrow transplant This helps outline the intestine so that certain areas are not mistaken for tumors. Bone marrow transfusion It may not be needed for CT scans of the nasopharynx.

The injection can cause some flushing (redness and warm feeling). Donating bone marrow side effects Some people are allergic and get hives or, rarely, more serious reactions like trouble breathing and low blood pressure. Pediatric bone marrow transplant Be sure to tell the doctor if you have any allergies or have ever had a reaction to a contrast material used for x-rays.

You need to lie still on a table while the scan is being done. Procedure of bone marrow transplantation During the test, the table slides in and out of the scanner, a ring-shaped machine that completely surrounds the table. Bone marrow biopsy needle You might feel a bit confined by the ring you have to lie in while the pictures are being taken.

A CT scan of the head and neck can provide information about the size, shape, and position of a tumor and can help find enlarged lymph nodes that might contain cancer. Bone marrow biopsy interpretation CT scans or MRIs are important in looking for cancer that may have grown into the bones at the base of the skull. Bone marrow transplant mortality rate This is a common place for nasopharyngeal cancer to grow. Bone marrow transplant treatment CT scans can also be used to look for tumors in other parts of the body. Bone marrow transplant fellowship Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

Like CT scans, MRI scans provide detailed images of soft tissues in the body. Process of bone marrow transplant But MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays. Is bone marrow kosher The energy from the radio waves is absorbed and then released in a pattern formed by the type of body tissue and by certain diseases. What does the bone marrow produce A computer translates the pattern into very detailed images of parts of the body. Why bone marrow transplant A contrast material called gadolinium is often injected into a vein before the scan to better see details.

MRI scans may be a little more uncomfortable than CT scans. Donating bone marrow uk They take longer – often up to an hour. Bone marrow and white blood cells You may be asked to lie on a table that slides inside a large tube, which is confining and can upset people with a fear of enclosed spaces. Bone marrow donor test Special, “open” MRI machines can sometimes help with this if needed, but the drawback is that the images may not be as clear. Bone marrow donation scar The MRI machine makes buzzing and clicking noises that you may find disturbing. Cost of bone marrow transplant in india Some places will provide earplugs to help block this noise out.

Like CT scans, MRIs can be used to try to determine if the cancer has grown into structures near the nasopharynx. Bone marrow biopsy test MRIs are a little better than CT scans at showing the soft tissues in the nose and throat, but they’re not quite as good for looking at the bones at the base of the skull, a common place for nasopharyngeal cancer to grow. Where is bone marrow found Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

For a PET scan, you receive an injection of a form of radioactive sugar (known as fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG). What is yellow bone marrow The amount of radioactivity used is low. Bone marrow aplasia Because cancer cells in the body are growing rapidly, they absorb large amounts of the sugar. Bone marrow contents After about an hour, you are moved onto a table in the PET scanner. Bone marrow transplant side effects You lie on the table for about 30 minutes while a special camera creates a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body. Bone marrow transplant immunosuppression The picture is not finely detailed like a CT or MRI scan, but it provides helpful information about your whole body.

Your doctor may use this test to see if the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes. Bone marrow biopsy needle size It can also help give the doctor a better idea of whether an abnormal area on a chest x-ray may be cancer. Different types of bone marrow A PET scan can also be useful if your doctor thinks the cancer may have spread but doesn’t know where.

Some machines are able to do both a PET and CT scan at the same time (PET/CT scan). Bone marrow transplant prognosis This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET with the more detailed appearance of that area on the CT. Bone marrow donation age limit Blood tests

Blood tests are not used to diagnose NPC, but they may be done for other reasons, such as to help determine whether the cancer may have spread to other parts of the body. Complications of bone marrow aspiration Routine blood counts and blood chemistry tests

Routine blood tests can help determine a patient’s overall health. Bone marrow in bloodstream These tests can help diagnose malnutrition, anemia (low red blood counts), liver disease, and kidney disease. Bone marrow donor process And they may suggest the possibility of spread of the cancer to the liver or bone, which may prompt further testing.

In people getting chemotherapy, blood tests are important to see if the treatment is damaging the bone marrow (where new blood cells are made), liver, and kidneys. Is bone marrow good for you Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels

In some patients, the blood level of EBV DNA may be measured before and after treatment to help show how effective treatment is.

The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team

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