Sexually transmitted infections – documents

Where do you find information in future? (in case you sleep through the whole talk, or God forbid, forget a little of what you learn in medical school)

North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, HIV/STD Prevention and Care Branch

Contraceptive Technology, 19th ed. Etiology of hepatitis c includes information on protection from STIs and alternate modes of sexual expression

STD 101 in a Box a?? Readymade PowerPoint talks on STDs, epidemiology, prevention efforts http://www.cdc.gov/std/training/std101/presentations.htm

Photo courtesy of Dr. Is hepatitis c contagious after treatment CW Leung, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong.

June 5, 1981, MMWR published a report of five cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) among previously healthy young men in Los Angeles. Is hep c curable 2015 All of the men were described as a??homosexualsa??; two had died. How can i get hepatitis c Soon other reports documented a similar illness in other groups, including injection drug users, Haitians, and hemopheliacs.


Based on what you know about Hepatitis B, which had similar epidemiology, what would you guess about the mode of transmission of the new disease?

What is sex? (It depends on what the meaning of the words ‘is’ is.)

[A] person engages in “sexual relations” when the person knowingly engages in or causes — (1) contact with the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person . . . . Genotype 4 hepatitis c treatment “Contact” means intentional touching, either directly or through clothing.

Syphilis vs other spirochetal illnessesa??bejel, pinta, yaws, Lyme disease, relapsing fever, rat bite fever

Different mode of entry, but similar binding to cellular and circulating proteins, tissue tropisms, biphasic illness pattern, treatments, treatment reactions.

When you reach a roadblock on one disease (e.g. Hepatitis c how is it transmitted if you cana??t culture Treponema pallidum, you can use Borrelia burgdorferi data to make hypotheses about syphilis

1978 – IgA protease production in both N. Cost of treatment for hepatitis c gonorrheae and N. Hepatitis c treatment harvoni meningiditis may explain why these are pathogenic and other strains are not.

2006 a?? geneomes of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Neisseriaceae are known, so structure and function of secreted proteins is known

(In this case, the resemblance between the a??sexually transmitted infectiona?? of a??genital herpesa?? and the non sexually transmitted form a??oral herpesa?? is so strong, that you can not tell which is which without labs)

What is the effect of disclosure to a potential sexual partner?

How does your patient feel when she has an outbreak of Herpes type II in a long-term monogamous marriage?

Changes in HSV-2 Seroprevalence between NHANES III and NHANESa??99-00

Slide from: www.cdc.gov/stdconference/2004/Slides/SponSymposium/Xu.pps

Operators of restaurants/other food or drink establishments (GS 130A-138)

Cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported by state health departments and rates per 100,000 population: United States, 1941a??2007,

Source: The Tip of the Iceberg: How Big Is the STD Epidemic in the U.S.? Kaiser Family Foundation 1998

STIs/RTIs cause a large proportion of the global burden of ill-health. Hepatitis c chronic WHO estimates that over 340 million new cases of four curable STIs (gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis and trichomoniasis) occurred in 1999. How can you get hepatitis c If viral STIs such as human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are included, the number of new cases may be three times higher.

http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/rtis_gep/index.htm

Transmission and prevalence (how common they are) are influenced by social and economic factors as well as by biology and behaviour. Is there a cure for hepatitis c 2015 The burden of STIs/RTIs thus varies greatly from region to region, and from community to community. How does hepatitis c transmitted Where STIs/RTIs are common, so are their complications.

STIs such as syphilis, gonorrhoea and chancroid spread more rapidly in places where communities are disrupted, migrant labour is common and commercial sex networks are active.

Iatrogenic infections are more common where there are many STIs, and where health care providers do not have the training or supplies to perform procedures safely. What causes hepatitis b Postpartum and postabortion infections are more common where safe services and follow-up care are not available.

http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/rtis_gep/index.htm

From: Chlamydia Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2006

http://www.cdc.gov/STD/stats06/slides/AllSurvReportSlides2006.ppt

26% of female adolescents in the United States have at least one of the most common STIs

Oral Abstract D4a a?? Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Bacterial Vaginosis among Female Adolescents in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Hepatitis c treatment blogs Presented by Sara Forhan.

Risk is due to behaviors: multiple partners, a??serial monogamya??, alcohol & drug use

Chronic infection causes PID, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy

Note: transmission rates to men and women from an infected partner are similar, but women may have more infections, or more screening.

Courtesy of Dr. What is hepatitis c genotype 1a FA©lix OmeA±aca TerA©s, Hospital Materno Infantil La Paz, Madrid, Spain

In 1930, Dr. C hepatitis virus Cecil George Paine, a pathologist who had studied under Alexander Fleming, treated babies with Penicillin for gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum . Hepatitis c articles These cases cleared up dramatically..

When his old notes were discovered in 1983, Paine was asked why he did not report what was in fact the first and successful clinical use of Penicillin. Diet for hepatitis c He modestly said, ‘I was a poor fool who didn’t see the obvious when placed in front of me.’

http://bookshop.blackwell.co.uk/jsp/welcome.jsp?page=/jsp/promo/umh.jsp&source=heroes

Cause of stillbirth, neonatal death, deafness, retardation, bony deformities, seizures

Rate down >50% by targeting specific areas (e.g. How does hepatitis c affect the liver prenatal care for uninsured women in the South)

a??Statistically significant differences in health care utilization by neighbourhood income status were observed for chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis C. Test for hepatitis c The rate ratios increased in size when comparing low-income neighbourhoods to high-income neighbourhoods.a??

Lemstra M, Neudorf C, Opondo J. Hepatitis c virus rna quantitative Health disparity by neighbourhood income. Hepatitis c treatment interferon Can J Public Health. How long is hepatitis c contagious 2006 Nov-Dec;97(6):435-9.

Note: these data are not from the US, but illustrate the kind of work that can be done when there is universal health care and extensive prospective data collection.

African Americans had 73.3% of reported cases of GC and 49.8% of cases of primary & secondary syphilis.

Native Americans at increased risk of chlamydia, increasing risk of GC

Hispanics at increased risk of chlamydia, GC, syphilis; marked increase in congenital syphilis. How is hep c transmitted through saliva Cross-border migration of illness.

Gonorrhea a?? Rates by race and ethnicity: United States, 1981a??2003

a??Individual risk behavior and sociodemographic characteristics of African Americans do not seem to account fully for increased STD rates for African Americans.a??

Newman LM, Berman SM, Epidemiology of STD disparities in African American communities. Hepatitis c means Sex Transm Dis. How to test for hepatitis c 2008 Dec;35(12 Suppl):S4-12. Hepatitis c virus survival outside body Review.

Self-reported viral STD rates higher among bisexual women (15.0% to 17.2%) than among lesbians (2.3% to 6.7%).

Tao G. How do you get hepatitis c from someone Sexual orientation and related viral sexually transmitted disease rates among US women aged 15 to 44 years.

53 percent of the estimated 56,000 cases of new HIV infection in 2006 were among gay and bisexual men.

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/factsheets/incidence.htm

Estimated AIDS Incidence* among Adults/ Adolescents, Diagnosed by Sex and Exposure Category, United States, 2003

Data adjusted for reporting delays and estimated proportional redistribution of cases initially reported without risk.

STD causes infection and desquamation of squamous or columnar cells producing an inflammatory response

Results in increased number of HIV target cells (lymphocytes) on mucous membrane surfaces and a portal of entry for HIV

Brings inflammatory cells loaded with HIV to the genital tract

In daily practice: ask about risk factors, encourage abstinence (especially in the young), safer sex practices, support behaviors to decrease risk

Screen asymptomatic people based on epidemiology of the area and your patient population

In community: disease reporting, support evidence-based decisions, teach young people to be safe

Which are vaccine preventable? (4 strains of HPV, Hep B. Hepatitis c infection symptoms HSV vaccine is not very good.)

What is most common STD? (chlamydia has highest reported incidence, HSV prevalance is highest. What is hepatitis c in hindi Most common curable STI in young women is trichomonaisis. Hep c first symptoms What about lifetime occurrence of HPV?a??nobody knows.

If you get a needlestick, which is most infectious: HIV, Hep B, Hep C, Syphilis? And who do you call when stuck?

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